We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus (27.1.1756, Salzburg, - 5.12.1791, Vienna) is an Austrian composer. Among the greatest masters of music, Mozart stands out for the early flowering of a powerful and all-round talent, the unusual fate of life - from the triumphs of a child prodigy to a difficult struggle for existence and recognition in adulthood, the unparalleled courage of the artist who preferred the unsecured life of an independent master to the humiliating service of a despot nobleman, and, finally, the overarching meaning of creativity, covering almost all genres of music. The life of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, like no other genius, is immersed in myths and legends. Many arose soon after his death, some were born later, but all are surprisingly tenacious so far. Through the centuries, we no longer consider the truth, which gives rise to numerous interpretations of myths and their revelations.
Mozart's name was Wolfgang Amadeus. At baptism, Mozart was given the name Johann Chrysostomus Wolfgang Theophilus. The Greek "Theophilus" in German means "Gottlieb", and in Latin - "Amadeus" (that is, "loving God"). Of all three options, Amadeus is the best by ear. This is the name Mozart chose for himself.
Mozart was unique, a miracle; he worked in jest, and everything came to him unusually easily. Of course, Mozart was a musical genius, had phenomenal abilities. But behind his masterpieces is a titanic work, he worked hard and hard. Unbearably much from early childhood. Mozart's genius manifested itself from the age of three. His father, a famous teacher and musician who served at the court of the Prince of Salzburg, immediately took up teaching his son. Little Mozart easily repeated small pieces after his sister and easily memorized them. Already at the age of four he composed his first concerto for the harpsichord, and at the age of six he masterly played the harpsichord, violin and organ. Mozart was not even six years old when his long concert tour began: together with his sister Anna, also a talented performer, and mentor father, young Wolfgang traveled half of Europe. For several years they gave concerts in Munich, Paris, Vienna, London, visited Holland and Switzerland. The audience admired the boy who could play blindfolded, improvised masterly, performed the most complex passages on a par with adult musicians ... The genius was only seven years old when his sonatas for piano and violin were published in Paris. Of course, these trips were exhausting children. On the way, Wolfgang and Nannerl were often ill, more than once were on the verge of death. They both suffered pneumonia and smallpox. It is believed that the cause of Mozart's early death is in the illnesses that he earned during his difficult childhood. During his travels, Mozart took lessons, met with a huge number of composers and musicians of that time, mastered different musical styles and languages. It is impossible to find another composer who, with such brilliance as Mozart, mastered the most diverse genres and forms: this applies to symphony and concert, divertissement and quartet, opera and mass, sonata and trio. In total, Mozart wrote over 600 works of almost all major musical genres - symphonies, chamber ensembles, concerts, songs, arias, masses, cantatas.
Mozart lived in poverty; his contemporaries did not appreciate his talent. Mozart is considered a classic example of how outstanding artists are exploited by the ruling class, receiving scanty rewards. In fact, Mozart received very decent royalties. For one hour of teaching the piano, he billed 2 guilders (for comparison, his maid received 12 guilders a year). In 1782, Mozart's opera "The Abduction from the Seraglio" was a huge success. Over the years, he has given many piano concerts. And although, it happened, he did not receive payment for his work, very often he was paid huge royalties (for comparison: the annual salary of Mozart's father in Salzburg was 350 florins, and his son could receive three times more for one concert). Personal correspondence shows that the degree of poverty of the family in myths is noticeably exaggerated. However, the extravagant lifestyle quickly consumed all the money. Once, having earned a fabulous sum for the performance, Mozart spent it in two weeks. A friend to whom a genius came to borrow money asked: "You have neither a castle, nor a stable, nor an expensive mistress, nor a bunch of children ... Where are you doing your money?" And Mozart replied: "But I have a wife, Constance! She is my castle, my herd of thoroughbred horses, my mistress and my bunch of children ..." There were six children in the family, but four of them died in infancy. The Mozart family was interrupted by the sons of Carl Thomas and Franz Xaver, who never had offspring. Mozart's marriage, into which he entered without the permission of his father, turned out to be happy. Wolfgang and Constance were similar, both had a light and joyful attitude towards life. There is a legend that one winter a guest came to them and found them dancing: the Mozarts tried to keep warm, having no money for firewood ... However, even when the capricious audience in Vienna stopped listening to Mozart's operas and his work "went out of fashion", the composer continued to receive good fees from other European countries, as well as court salaries.
Mozart and Salieri. They began to talk about the fact that Mozart was poisoned shortly after his death: the topic of poisons and poisoning at that time was extremely popular. And despite the fact that in the early biographies of Mozart this version was denied by everyone, including his wife Constanta, the rumors did not stop. About 30 years have passed since the death of Mozart, when Antonio Salieri, at that time already a seriously ill person, appeared in this myth. According to the testimony of those who were with him in those years, Salieri never made a confession that he killed Mozart, as the newspapers claimed. Perhaps Pushkin read about these rumors in the newspapers and immortalized them in his story about "genius and villainy". Later, this theme sounded in the play "Amadeus" by Peter Schaeffer, which was used for the film by Milos Forman. However, there is no historical evidence of the feud between the two composers. On the contrary, the opposite is well documented: Salieri's admiring remarks about Mozart; Mozart's account of Salieri being at the performance of his opera. Salieri had no grounds for envy of Mozart: for example, the latter almost did not compose instrumental music, and in the opera genre Salieri's reputation among his contemporaries was much higher. It is known that Mozart chose Salieri as the teacher for his son Franz. By the way, among the many students of Salieri, who played a huge role in the musical life of Europe, were Beethoven, Czerny, Meyerbeer, Schubert, Liszt ...
Mozart wrote a requiem for his death. On an autumn evening, a gray stranger knocked on Mozart's door ... He ordered a requiem on the instructions of his master, Count Walsegg-Stuppach, who had recently buried his wife. Anticipating his imminent death, possessed by black thoughts, Mozart began to compose a requiem - for himself. This is how the legend tells. However, judging by the Mozart correspondence of the last months of his life, he was in a good mood. And his death came as a shock to family and friends. (Here Salieri just wrote a requiem for his death in 1804. But he died much later, in 1825.) Mozart's reasons for death are also controversial. His illness proceeded very quickly, and on December 5, 1791, Wolfgang Amadeus died in terrible suffering from a "strong fever". What caused the fever is not clear, and this is not surprising given the level of development of medicine. The genius was treated by the best Viennese doctors using the methods adopted at that time. (As a result of his prescribed bloodletting, it is estimated that Mozart lost about two liters of blood.) It is likely that there was an epidemic of inflammatory infectious diseases in Vienna that year, something like the flu. Although there are dozens of theories about the disease that killed the genius: from trichinosis to poisoning.
Buried in oblivion Mozart was buried in the mass grave of the poor ... Only one person accompanied him to the cemetery ... The widow refused to come to the funeral ... A wealthy friend of the Van Swieten family spared money for the burial ... All this is not entirely true. Among the reforms of the Austrian Emperor Joseph were new funeral rules. According to them, burials were now taken out of the city limits (before that, the custom of burying the dead in the center, near the main cathedral, flourished in Europe). The funeral procedure itself was extremely simplified. 85% of city burials were made in common graves, on which it was not allowed to install any memorial signs (they saved space). Every 7-8 years the graves were dug up and used again. The widow did not go to the cemetery to fetch the coffin, and that was also in the order of things. The memorial ceremony for Mozart took place in his Masonic lodge. The hearse did not go to the cemetery until after six in the evening. It was not accepted to follow him outside the city gates, no rituals were arranged at the burial place at that time, and only gravediggers were present. And for several years the "stingy" van Swieten paid generously for the education of Mozart's sons, organized the first performance of his requiem, arranged concerts in favor of Constanta and children in different European cities.
Sacrificed by the Freemasons. Mozart, like many of his contemporaries, was carried away by the ideas of Freemasonry and was a member of the Masonic lodge (along with his friend Haydn). His latest opera, The Magic Flute, contains Masonic themes and allegories. But ... Further speculation: the leaders of the order supposedly thought that the opera was too caricatured, moreover, they learned that Mozart was going to create his own secret society. So the genius fell victim to an anti-Christian Masonic conspiracy: the Masons poisoned him with mercury, deliberately hid the traces of the grave and stole the skull from it for their rituals. This myth was cultivated by the Nazis; he was remembered later. According to the theory of the 60s of the XX century, the death of Mozart became a sacrifice at the consecration of a new Masonic temple.
Mozart effect. This term refers to a set of conflicting scientific findings that classical music briefly (15-20 minutes) enhances some of the human mental capacity (for example, spatial thinking). And that listening to Mozart in the cradle is good for the infant mind. Passive listening to the works of Mozart, or classical music in general, does not lead to either a short-term or a permanent increase in intellectual abilities. Such conclusions were reached by German scientists during a study commissioned by the German Ministry of Education and Science. That is, some positive effect, lasting no more than 20 minutes after listening, was found, but it manifested itself from any music and even reading.