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Guinea (Republic of Guinea) is a state located in West Africa. The waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the west side wash Guinea. The flat territory in Guinea is relatively small, more than half of its territory is occupied by low mountains and plateaus.
In 1958, a referendum was held in which the Guineans voted for independence. Independence was proclaimed on October 2 - Guinea became a republic. Guinea is currently a presidential republic, headed by the President of the Republic.
The President is elected for a term of seven years, after which he can reapply for him. Parliament consists of one hundred and fourteen deputies, each of whom is elected for a five-year term. Parliament is the National Assembly. Guinea's administrative structure - the country is divided into seven provinces and thirty-three prefectures.
The capital of the Republic of Guinea is Conakry. The capital is equal to the province. French is the official language in Guinea. Guinea leads among all countries in the world in reserves of bauxite, which is one of the most important minerals in this country. In addition to bauxite, Guinea mines ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, diamonds, gold, monazite, zircon, etc.
Guinea has a subequatorial climate. Average temperatures range from twenty-four to twenty-seven degrees Celsius. The river network of Guinea is rather dense, but rivers are navigable almost only in estuarine sections. About 60% of Guinea's territory is covered by forest cover.
The population of Guinea as of July 2010 is 10.3 million people. The annual population growth is 2.6%. The following demographic data are interesting: fertility (that is, the number of births per woman) in Guinea is 5.2 births, the average life expectancy for women is 59 years, for men - 56 years.
According to the ethnic composition, forty percent of the population is Fulbe, thirty percent - Malinka, twenty percent - Susu. Islam is the main religion in Guinea, it is practiced by eighty-five percent of the population. Thirty-four percent of the population lives in cities (2008 data).
Guinea is a member of the ACP international organization - Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific.
Plateaus occupy most of Guinea's territory. Plateau and low mountains occupy more than one-second of the territory of this state. individual massifs of the Futa-Djallon plate rise up to a height of 1538 meters (Mount Tamge). The North Guinean Upland turns into blocky highlands and basement plateaus. The height of the first reaches 1752 meters (Mount Nimba), and the height of the boards is about eight hundred meters.
Guinea's climate is subequatorial. It is characterized by an alternation of wet and dry seasons. Summer is humid. Its duration depends on the specific territory: in the south of Guinea it lasts from seven to ten months, and in the north-east of the country - from three to five months. The air temperature in the interior is about twenty-four degrees Celsius, which is lower than on the coast - about twenty-seven degrees Celsius. April is the hottest month. The air warms up to an average of thirty degrees Celsius. August is the coldest month. The average temperature is twenty-six degrees Celsius. The exception to the temperature regime is associated with periods of drought. The wind blowing from the Sahara raises the air temperature up to thirty-eight degrees Celsius (harmatan wind). Almost all precipitation falls between May and October.
A significant part of Guinea's territory is occupied by forests. About 60% of Guinea's territory is covered by forest cover. However, primary evergreen forests currently grow only on the slopes of the North Guinean Upland, while most of the forests are represented by secondary deciduous trees. Mangroves can be seen in places along the coast.
Guinea boasts a variety of wildlife. Previously, this was exactly the case - the fauna of the forests amazed with its diversity. However, at present, all this diversity can be seen almost only in protected areas (these are forest dukers, civets, genetas, hippos). In addition, chimpanzees, leopards and elephants have been virtually exterminated.
French is the state language of the Republic of Guinea. This is true. However, only a small proportion of the population speaks French - between fifteen and twenty percent of Guineans. There are eight "national" languages. Of these eight, classes are taught in six languages.
For citizens of the Russian Federation wishing to visit Guinea, a visa is required. It is drawn up at the Guinean consulate, which is located in Moscow. To apply for a visa, you need: a foreign passport and a copy of its first page, three questionnaires, three photographs measuring 3 × 4 centimeters, the original invitation. The validity of the foreign passport must be longer than the planned period of stay in the Republic of Guinea. The questionnaires are filled out in either English or French. Photos can be either color or black and white. If a visa is issued directly at the airport of the Guinean capital, then you need a foreign passport, migration card (must be filled out in French). In addition, it is imperative to provide either tickets to a third country or return tickets. A prerequisite for entering the country is the availability of an international certificate confirming the vaccination against yellow fever.
Guinea is an illiterate country. As of 2003, only eighteen percent of women and forty-two percent of men were literate.
Guinea is an underdeveloped country. In economic terms, this is so. In 2006, forty-seven percent of Guinea's population was below the poverty line. And this is despite the fact that the country possesses rather large agricultural hydropower and mineral resources. Almost one-half of the world's bauxite reserves are concentrated in Guinea. This country has many deposits of uranium, iron ore, gold and diamonds. In 2009, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was one thousand dollars. According to this indicator, Guinea took the two hundred and twelfth place among all countries in the world. Twenty-four percent of GDP comes from agriculture, which employs more than seventy-five percent of the working population. Rice, bananas, tapioca, pineapples and coffee are cultivated. Livestock breeding specializes in breeding goats, sheep, cattle. Thirty-eight percent of GDP is barked by the industry, which is based on the extraction of bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, as well as on the processing of agricultural products. Exported goods are bauxite, fish, coffee, diamonds, gold, alumina - with a total value of $ 1.4 billion (as of 2008). India is the main buyer of Guinean exports (17.8%). 10.8% of goods are purchased by Russia. In addition, Spain, Ireland, the USA and Germany are engaged in foreign trade with Guinea. Imported goods are textiles, vehicles, manufactured goods, metals, oil products, grain and other food products. As of 2008, the total value of imported goods is estimated at $ 1.4 billion. The main supplier of goods to Guinea is China (15.4%). Other importers are Spain, Netherlands, France, USA.
Guinea is a picturesque country. Very picturesque. This is the first thing that attracts tourists from all over the world to visit the Republic of Guinea. The landscapes of the Futa Jallon Highlands are especially beautiful. In addition, a first-time visitor will be amazed at the contrast between the endless jungle in southern Guinea and the dry valleys in the northern regions of the country. As already mentioned, one of the most important attractions created by nature in Guinea is the Futa Jallon plateau, located two hundred and twenty kilometers northeast of the Guinean capital. The plateau is linked to Conakry by a good road. The hills, whose height reaches thousands of meters, are covered with the most beautiful emerald green vegetation. The view is so magnificent that it does not leave indifferent any tourist. Small villages, national cuisine and relative coolness add to the charm of this place. The most popular are the towns of Mamu, Dalaba, Mali. Mali has a reputation for being the coolest city. The Fuyama Rapids and Bafara Falls are also the main natural attractions of Guinea. Just ten kilometers from Conakry there is a group of small islands Ile de Los, "lost" in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The water center is quite modern, which is very popular with guests and residents of the Guinean capital. The le de Los islands are a favorite resort area for locals. Mini boat cruises are often organized here. Some distance from Kamsara is Subani Beach. This beach is one of the best beach areas in the Republic of Guinea. Another great beach area in Guinea is Cape Verga, which is on the way to Boke. It is interesting that the rich resort life here flows only on weekends, and during the week the city is empty.
Dalaba is a resort town. Once this city, indeed, was a mountain climatic resort. The health center D'Asyuel was located here. Currently, groups of trekking enthusiasts go from Dalaba to the foothills.
Conakry is a modern city. The center of the Guinean capital is, in fact, quite modern. Conakry is a port on the Atlantic Ocean. The city has a railway station and an international airport. Conakry is the economic center of the Republic of Guinea. The main enterprises of the manufacturing industry are concentrated here - woodworking, textile, chemical, food flavoring, as well as metalworking enterprises. The country's foreign trade is mainly carried out through the Guinean capital. In Conakry, there is the Polytechnic Institute, the National Museum (with a large collection of national instruments, sculptures, masks), a botanical garden, and the People's Palace. As for the Palace, it is the venue for many festivals and performances of local ballet theaters (there are two of them). The city center is decorated with about fifty villas built in the Moorish style. They are located opposite the building of the presidential palace. At the present stage, these villas are used as offices of several organizations of international importance.
The city of Farana is a city of numerous villas. All of these villas are built in Victorian style. The city is located four hundred and twenty kilometers east of Conakry. Another attraction is the big fair held every Monday. It attracts peasants and artisans from almost the entire area. Although, according to Europeans, this fair is simply a huge market.
The Guinean city of Cancan is a city of historical sights. This is the political and spiritual center of one of the peoples of Guinea - Malinke. The city was built in the Middle Ages - during the era of the Mali Empire. However, in order to get acquainted with local historical sights (of which there are a lot), it will not work on your own. Only a local guide can show the tourist the edge where the past ends and the present begins. Indeed, for several centuries, the old and the new have literally grown together. Particular attention should be paid to the study of the Great Mosque (this is a local relic) and the presidential palace located on the banks of the Milo River.
Nzerekore is the capital of forest Guinea. It is from here that many ecological excursions to the forest zone - to Mount Nimba begin. It is an area of dense forest that prides itself on its inhabitants. In this forest you can find the forest leopard (one of the few places on the African continent), gorillas, as well as toads that breastfeed their young (the only ones in the world). In addition, the City of Nzerekore has a reputation as the cheapest city in the Republic of Guinea. It is located on the border with Liberia. In the local market, you can buy almost everything at an inexpensive price. This market is the largest transshipment base for goods.
Labe is one of the largest cities in Guinea. The city ranks third in size in the state. Squares and small streets, good markets - all this forms the basis of the city and provides an opportunity for the life of the Fula peoples inhabiting it.
The cuisine of the Republic of Guinea is distinguished by its sophistication. It's not like that at all. For her, on the contrary, simplicity is inherent. The Guinean cuisine mainly includes a wide variety of cereals. In addition, in Guinea, various stews are prepared from corn, millet or rice. They are flavored with spices, vegetable seasonings and vegetable oil. Meat side dishes (and just meat) are rarely used in cooking. Seafood and fish are much more familiar to Guineans. The most popular drink in Guinea is milk, which is consumed fermented or fresh. European dishes can be enjoyed in the hotel restaurants.
There are no traffic rules in Guinea. There are no signs. But the drivers are polite. Drivers use gestures to ask each other to wait or skip when turning. It should be noted that there are no pedestrian crossings in the country. From the latter it follows that pedestrians can cross the road anywhere on the road.
In Guinea, you can pick up some kind of disease. Indeed, the country has a rather complicated sanitary and epidemiological situation. This is due to the fact that from time to time on the territory of the Republic of Guinea outbreaks of dangerous infectious diseases. That is why you cannot enter the country without first being vaccinated against yellow fever. In addition, when entering the state with pets (as well as leaving) it is required to show a veterinary certificate.
In Guinea, you have to be extremely careful. It is not recommended to take a large sum of money with you when you go outside. This is due to the fact that Guinea is a rather poor state. For the same reason, you should not display your jewelry.